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List of Muscles

bullet The head
bullet The neck
bullet The torso
bullet The upper limbs
bullet The lower limbs





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This is an almost complete list of the muscles of the human body. It is organized by body areas, and it is based on the list found on Wikipadia.


The Head              
Scalp/eyelid Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  occipitofrontalis 2 occipital bellies and 2 frontal bellies. galea aponeurotica   facial nerve raises the eyebrows  
  occipitalis superior nuchal line of the occipital bone galea aponeurotica occipital artery posterior auricular nerve (facial nerve) wrinkles eyebrow  
    mastoid part of the temporal bone          
  frontalis galea aponeurotica skin above the eyebrows ophthalmic artery facial nerve wrinkles eyebrow  
  orbicularis oculi frontal bone; medial palpebral ligament; lacrimal bone lateral palpebral raphe ophthalmic, zygomatico-orbital, angular zygomatic branch of facial nerve and temporal branch of facial nerve closes eyelids levator palpebrae superioris
  corrugator supercilii superciliary arches forehead skin, near eyebrow   facial nerve wrinkles forehead  
  depressor supercilii Medial orbital rim Medial aspect of bony orbit   facial nerve Depression of eyebrow  
               
Extraocular Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  levator palpebrae superioris sphenoid bone tarsal plate, upper eyelid ophthalmic artery oculomotor nerve retracts//elevates eyelid orbicularis oculi muscle
  superior tarsal underside of levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal plate of the eyelid ophthalmic artery sympathetic nervous system raise the upper eyelid  
  Rectus superior annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex 7.5 mm superior to the corneal limbus   oculomotor nerve elevates, adducts, and rotates medially the eye  
  Rectus inferior annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex 6.5 mm inferior to the corneal limbus   inferior branch of oculomotor nerve depression and adduction  
  Rectus medial annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex 5.5 mm medial to the corneal limbus   inferior division of the oculomotor nerve adducts the eyeball  
  Rectus lateral annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex 7 mm temporal to the corneal limbus   abducens nerve abducts the eyeball  
  Oblique superior annulus of Zinn at the orbital apex, medial to optic canal Outer posterior quadrant of the eyeball lateral muscular branch of the ophthalmic artery trochlear nerve primary: intorsion. secondary:abduct (laterally rotate) and depress the eyeball  
  Oblique inferior orbital surface of the maxilla, lateral to the lacrimal groove laterally onto the eyeball, deep to the lateral rectus, by a short flat tendon   oculomotor nerve extorsion, elevation, abduction  
               
Intraocular Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  ciliary       oculomotor nerve (parasympathetics) accommodation  
  iris dilator       superior cervical ganglion (sympathetics) pupil dilation iris sphincter muscle
  iris sphincter       short ciliary nerves constricts pupil iris dilator muscle
               
Ear Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  auriculares galeal aponeurosis front of the helix, cranial surface of the pinna   facial nerve (Wiggle ears)  
  temporoparietalis Auriculares muscles galea aponeurotica        
  stapedius   neck of stapes   facial nerve control the amplitude of sound waves to the inner ear  
  tensor tympani Eustachian tube handle of the malleus superior tympanic artery medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve tensing the tympanic membrane  
               
Nose Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  procerus From fascia over the lower of the nasal bone skin of the lower part of the forehead between the eyebrows   Temporal and Lower Zygomatic branch of the facial nerve, (a Buccal branch has also been described) Draws down the medial angle of the eyebrow giving expressions of frowning  
  nasalis Maxilla Nasal bone   Buccal branch of the facial nerve Compresses bridge, depresses tip of nose, elevates corners of nostrils  
  dilatator naris margin of the nasal notch of the maxilla, greater and lesser alar cartilages skin near the margin of the nostril   Buccal branch of the facial nerve Dilation of nostrils  
  depressor septi nasi incisive fossa of the maxilla nasal septum and back part of the alar part of nasalis muscle   Buccal branch of the facial nerve Depression of nasal septum  
  levator labii superioris alaeque nasi maxilla nostril and upper lip   buccal branch of the facial nerve dilates the nostril; elevates the upper lip and wing of the nose  
               
Mouth Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  levator anguli oris maxilla modiolus of mouth facial artery facial nerve smile (elevates angle of mouth)  
  depressor anguli oris tubercle of mandible modiolus of mouth facial artery mandibular branch of facial nerve depresses angle of mouth  
  levator labii superioris Medial infra-orbital margin Skin and muscle of the upper lip (labii superioris) facial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve Elevates the upper lip  
  depressor labii inferioris oblique line of the mandible, between the symphysis and the mental foramen integument of the lower lip, Orbicularis oris fibers, its fellow of the opposite side   facial nerve depress the lower lip  
  Zygomaticus major anterior of zygomatic modiolus of mouth facial artery buccal branch of the facial nerve draws angle of mouth upward and laterally  
  Zygomaticus minor zygomatic bone skin of the upper lip facial artery facial nerve, buccal branch elevates upper lip  
  mentalis anterior mandible chin   mandibular branch of facial nerve elevates and wrinkles skin of chin, protrudes lower lip  
  buccinator alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, pterygomandibular raphe in the fibres of the orbicularis oris buccal artery buccal branch of the facial nerve compress the cheeks against the teeth (blowing), mastication.  
  orbicularis oris Maxilla and mandible Skin around the lips   buccal branch of the facial nerve pucker the lips  
  risorius parotid fascia modiolus facial artery Buccal branch of the facial nerve draw back angle of mouth  
               
Mastication Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  masseter zygomatic arch and maxilla coronoid process and ramus of mandible masseteric artery masseteric nerve (V3) elevation (as in closing of the mouth) and retraction of mandible Platysma muscle
  temporalis temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull coronoid process of the mandible deep temporal third branch (mandibular nerve) of the trigeminal nerve elevation and retraction of mandible Platysma muscle
  Pterygoid lateral Great wing of sphenoid and pterygoid plate Condyle of mandible pterygoid branches of maxillary artery external pterygoid nerve from the mandibular nerve depresses mandible  
  Pterygoid medial deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind the upper teeth medial angle of the mandible pterygoid branches of maxillary artery mandibular nerve via nerve to medial pterygoid elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw from side to side  
    superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity          
               
Tongue Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  genioglossus Superior part of mental spine of mandible (symphysis menti) Dorsum of tongue and body of hyoid Lingual artery hypoglossal nerve Complex - Inferior fibers protrude the tongue, middle fibers depress the tongue, and its superior fibers draw the tip back and down  
  hyoglossus hyoid side of the tongue   hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue  
  chondroglossus lesser cornu and body of the hyoid bone intrinsic muscular fibers of the tongue   hypoglossal nerve depresses tongue (some consider this muscle to be part of hyoglossus)  
  styloglossus Styloid process of temporal bone tongue   Hypoglossal nerve elevates and retracts tongue inferior and middle fibers of genioglossus
  superior longitudinal close to the epiglottis, from the median fibrous septum edges of the tongue   hypoglossal nerve    
  transversus median fibrous septum sides of the tongue   hypoglossal nerve    
  inferior longitudinal root of the tongue apex of the tongue   Hypoglossal nerve    
               
Soft palate Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  levator veli palatini temporal bone, Eustachian tube palatine aponeurosis facial artery vagus nerve elevates soft palate  
  tensor veli palatini medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone palatine aponeurosis   medial pterygoid of mandibular nerve tension of the soft palate  
  musculus uvulae hard palate palatine aponeurosis   pharyngeal plexus    
  palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis tongue   vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raising the back part of the tongue  
  palatopharyngeus palatine aponeurosis and hard palate Upper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers) Facial artery vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve pulls pharynx and larynx  
               
Pharynx Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  Pharyngeal constrictor inferior cricoid and thyroid cartilage pharyngeal raphe   external laryngeal branch of the vagus Swallowing  
  Pharyngeal constrictor middle hyoid bone pharyngeal raphe   Vagus nerve Swallowing  
  Pharyngeal constrictor superior medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphé, alveolar process pharyngeal raphe, pharyngeal tubercle   Vagus nerve Swallowing  
  stylopharyngeus Styloid process (temporal) thyroid cartilage (pharynx)   glossopharyngeal nerve elevate the larynx, elevate the pharynx, swallowing  
  salpingopharyngeus cartilage of the Eustachian tube posterior fasciculus of the pharyngopalatinus muscle   vagus nerve and cranial accessory nerve raise the nasopharynx  
               
Larynx Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
cricothyroid Anterior and lateral cricoid cartilage Inferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilage   external laryngeal branch of the vagus tension and elongation of the vocal folds (has minor adductory effect)  
  Cricoarytenoid posterior posterior part of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage   recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus abducts and laterally rotates the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments away from the midline and forward and so opening the rima glottidis Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
  Cricoarytenoid lateral lateral part of the arch of the cricoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage   recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus adduct and medially rotate the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments towards the midline and backwards and so closing off the rima glottidis  
  arytenoid Arytenoid cartilage on one side Arytenoid cartilage on opposite side   recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus approximate the arytenoid cartilages (close rima glottidis)  
  thyroarytenoid Inner surface of the thyroid cartilage (anterior aspect) Anterior surface of arytenoid cartilage   recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus thickens the vocal folds and decreases length; also helps helps to adduct the vocal folds during speech  
               
The Neck              
Cervical Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  platysma inferior clavicle and fascia of chest mandible   cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it (as in expressions of sadness and fright). Also draws the skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched Masseter, Temporalis
  sternocleidomastoid manubrium sterni, medial portion of the clavicle mastoid process of the temporal bone, superior nuchal line occipital artery and the superior thyroid artery motor: accessory nerve Acting alone, tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side.  
          sensory: cervical plexus    
            Acting together, flexes the neck, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration.  
               
Suprahyoid Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  digastric anterior belly - digastric fossa (mandible); posterior belly - mastoid process of temporal bone Intermediate tendon (hyoid bone)   anterior belly - mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V) via the mylohyoid nerve; posterior belly - facial nerve (CN VII) Opens the jaw when the masseter and the temporalis are relaxed.  
  stylohyoid styloid process (temporal) greater cornu of hyoid bone   facial nerve (CN VII) Elevate the hyoid during swallowing  
  mylohyoid Mylohyoid line (mandible) Median raphé mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3] Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, depresses mandible  
  geniohyoid Symphysis menti hyoid bone   C1 via hypoglossal nerve carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition  
               
Infrahyoid/Strap Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  sternohyoid manubrium of sternum hyoid bone   ansa cervicalis depress hyoid bone  
  sternothyroid manubrium thyroid cartilage   Ansa cervicalis Elevates larynx, may slightly depress hyoid bone  
  thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage hyoid bone   first cervical nerve depress hyoid bone  
  omohyoid Upper border of the scapula Hyoid bone   Ansa cervicalis Depresses the larynx and hyoid bone. Carries hyoid bone backward and to the side  
               
Vertebral Anterior Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  longus colli Transverse processes of C-3 - C-6 Inferior surface of the occipital bone   C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 Flexes the neck and head  
  longus capitis anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae basilar part of the occipital bone   C1, C2, C3/C4 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint  
  rectus capitis anterior atlas occipital bone   C1 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint  
  rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone   C1 Sidebend at atlanto-occipital joint  
               
Vertebral Lateral Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  scalene cervical vertebrae (C2-C7) first and second ribs Ascending cervical artery (branch of Inferior thyroid artery) cervical nerves (C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 elevation of ribs I&II  
  scalene anterior C3-C6 first rib Ascending cervical artery (branch of Inferior thyroid artery) ventral ramus of C5, C6    
  scalene medius C2-C6 first rib Ascending cervical artery (branch of Inferior thyroid artery) Ventral rami of the third to eighth cervical spinal nerves Elevate 1st rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side  
  scalene posterior transverse processes of C4 - C6 2nd rib Ascending cervical artery, superficial cervical artery C6, C7, C8 Elevate 2nd rib, tilt the neck to the same side  
               
Muscles of torso              
Back Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  splenius capitis Ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C7-T6 Mastoid process of temporal and occipital bone   C3, C4 Extend, rotate, and laterally flex the head  
  splenius cervicis spinous processes of T3-T6 transverse processes of C1, C2, C3   C5, C6    
  erector spinae on the spines of the last four thoracic vertebræ both the spines of the most cranial thoracic vertebrae and the cervical vertebrae lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve extends the vertebral column Rectus abdominis muscle
  iliocostalis   lateral sacral artery        
  longissimus transverse process transverse process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve   Rectus abdominis muscle
  spinalis spinous process spinous process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve   Rectus abdominis muscle
  latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
  transversospinales transverse process spinous process   posterior branches    
  semispinalis dorsi transverse processes of the sixth to the tenth thoracic vertebræ spinous processes of the upper four thoracic and lower two cervical vertebrae        
  semispinalis cervicis transverse processes of the upper five or six thoracic vertebræ cervical spinous processes, from the axis to the fifth        
  Semispinalis capitis Transversal process of lower cervical and higher thoracal columna Area between superior and inferior nuchal line   Greater occipital nerve Extend the head  
  multifidus Sacrum, Erector spinae Aponeurosis, PSIS, and Iliac crest spinous process   Posterior branches Stabilizes vertebrae in local movements of vertebral column  
  rotatores transverse process spinous process   posterior branch    
  interspinales Spinous process Spinous process   Posterior rami of spinal nerves Extension, flexion and rotation of vertebral column.  
  intertransversarii Transverse process Transverse process above   Anterior rami of spinal nerves Lateral flexion of trunk  
               
Suboccipital Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  Rectus capitis posterior major Spinous process of the axis (C2) Inferior nucheal line of the occipital bone   Dorsal ramus of C1 (suboccipital nerve)    
  Rectus capitis posterior minor the tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas the medial part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface between it and the foramen magnum   a branch of the dorsal primary division of the suboccipital nerve extends the head at the neck, but is now considered to be more of a sensory organ than a muscle  
  obliquus capitis inferior spinous process of the axis lateral mass of atlas   suboccipital nerve    
  obliquus capitis superior lateral mass of atlas lateral half of the inferior nuchal line   suboccipital nerve    
               
Chest Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  intercostales ribs 1-11 ribs 2-12 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves    
  intercostales external     intercostal arteries intercostal nerves Inhalation internal
  intercostales internal rib - inferior border rib - superior border intercostal arteries intercostal nerves hold ribs steady external
  intercostales innermost     intercostal arteries intercostal nerves    
  subcostales inner surface of one rib inner surface of the second or third rib above, near its angle   intercostal nerves    
  transversus thoracis costal cartilages of last 3-4 ribs, body of sternum, xiphoid process ribs/costal cartilages 2-6 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depresses ribs  
  levatores costarum Transverse processes of C7 to T12 vertebrae Superior surfaces of the ribs immediately inferior to the preceding vertebrae   dorsal rami - C8, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11 Assists in elevation of the thoracic rib cage  
  serratus anterior inferior vertebrae T11 - L3 the inferior borders of the 9th through 12th ribs intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depress the lower ribs, aiding in expiration  
  serratus anterior superior nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7 through T3 the upper borders of the 2nd through 5th ribs intercostal arteries 2nd through 5th intercostal nerves elevate the ribs which aids in inspiration  
  diaphragm     Pericardiacophrenic artery, Musculophrenic artery, Inferior phrenic arteries phrenic and lower intercostal nerves respiration  
               
Abdomen Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  external oblique Lower 8 costae Crista iliaca, ligamentum inguinale   intercostal nerves T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12) Rotates torso  
  internal oblique Inguinal ligament, Iliac crest and the Lumbodorsal fascia Linea alba, Xiphoid process and the inferior ribs.   intercostal nerves T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve Compresses abdomen and rotates vertebral column.  
  transversus abdominis ribs and the iliac crest inserts into the pubic tubercle via the conjoint tendon, also known as the falx inguinalis   intercostal nerves T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, genitofemoral nerve compress the ribs and viscera, providing thoracic and pelvic stability  
  rectus abdominis pubis Costal cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process of sternum inferior epigastric artery segmentally by thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12) flexion of trunk/lumbar vertebrae Erector spinae
  pyramidalis pubic symphysis and pubic crest linea alba   Subcostal nerve (T12) tensing the linea alba  
  cremaster inguinal ligament   Cremasteric artery genital branch of genitofemoral nerve raise and lower the scrotum  
  quadratus lumborum iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament Last rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae Lumbar arteries, Iliolumbar artery Anterior branches of T12, L1, L2, L3, L4 Alone, lateral flexion of vertebral column; Together, depression of thoracic rib cage  
               
Pelvis Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  levator ani iliococcygeus ischial spine and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia coccyx and anococcygeal raphe   levator ani nerve (S4) inferior rectal nerve from pudendal nerve (S3, S4) coccygeal plexus supports the viscera in pelvic cavity  
  levator ani pubococcygeus back of the pubis and from the anterior part of the obturator fascia coccyx and sacrum   levator ani nerve (S4) inferior rectal nerve from pudendal nerve (S3, S4) coccygeal plexus controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm  
  puborectalis lower part of the pubic symphysis     S3, S4. levator ani nerve inhibit defecation  
  coccygeus Sacrospinous ligament     sacral nerves: S4, S5 or S3-S4 closing in the back part of the outlet of the pelvis  
               
Perineum Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  sphincter ani externus       S4 and twigs from inferior anal nerves of pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces  
  sphincter ani internus       pudendal nerve keep the anal canal and anus closed, aids in the expulsion of the feces  
  superficial perineal pouch: transversus perinei superficialis anterior part of ischial tuberosity central point of perineum   pudendal nerve    
  superficial perineal pouch: bulbospongiosus Median raphé   Perineal artery pudendal nerve in males, empties the urethra; in females, clenches the vagina  
  superficial perineal pouch: ischiocavernosus     Perineal artery pudendal nerve assists the bulbospongiosus muscle  
  deep perineal pouch: transversus perinei profundus inferior rami of the ischium its fellow of the opposite side pudendal nerve      
  deep perineal pouch: sphincter urethrae membranaceae junction of the inferior rami of the pubis and ischium to the extent of 1.25 to 2 cm., and from the neighboring fasciæ its fellow of the opposite side   perineal branch of the pudendal nerve (S2, S3, S4) Constricts urethra, maintain urinary continence  
               
Muscles of upper limbs              
Vertebral column Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  trapezius down the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12 at the shoulders, into the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion process and into the spine of the scapula transverse cervical artery major nerve supply is the cranial nerve XI. Cervical nerves C3 and C4 receive information about pain in this muscle Descending (superior) part elevates; ascending (inferior) part depresses; and middle part (or all parts together) retracts scapula; descending and ascending parts act together to rotate glenoid cavity superiorly Serratus anterior muscle
  latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of the humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve (C6 to C8) pulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
  rhomboid major spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Serratus anterior muscle
  rhomboid minor nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7- to T1 vertebrae medial border of the scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscle dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Serratus anterior muscle
  levator scapulae Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae Superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula  
               
Thoracic walls Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  pectoralis major anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle.
Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages
intertubercular groove of the humerus pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk lateral pectoral nerve and medial pectoral nerve.
Clavicular head: C5 and C6.
Sternocostal head: C7, C8 and T1
Clavicular head: flexes the humerus.
Sternocostal head: extends the humerus.
As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus. It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly.
 
  pectoralis minor 3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilages medial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapula Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1) stabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall  
  subclavius first rib subclavian groove of clavicle thoracoacromial artery, clavicular branch nerve to subclavius depression of clavicle  
  serratus anterior fleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs costal aspect of medial margin of the scapula lateral thoracic artery (upper part), thoracodorsal artery (lower part) long thoracic nerve (from roots of brachial plexus C5, C6, C7) protract and stabilize scapula, assists in upward rotation Rhomboid major, Rhomboid minor, Trapezius
               
Shoulder Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  deltoid clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapula deltoid tuberosity of humerus primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery Axillary nerve shoulder abduction, flexion and extension Latissimus dorsi
  teres major posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries Lower subscapular nerve (segmental levels C5 and C6) Internal rotation of the humerus  
  Rotator cuff: supraspinatus supraspinous fossa of scapula superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus suprascapular artery suprascapular nerve abduction of arm and stabilizes humerus infraspinatus, teres minor, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
  Rotator cuff: infraspinatus infraspinous fossa of the scapula middle facet of greater tubercle of the humerus suprascapular and circumflex scapular arteries suprascapular nerve Lateral rotation of arm & Adduction of arm and stabilizes humerus subscapularis, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
  Rotator cuff: teres minor lateral border of the scapula inferior facet of greater tubercle of the humerus posterior circumflex humeral artery and the circumflex scapular artery axillary nerve laterally rotates and adducts the arm subscapularis, pectoralis major, and latissimus dorsi
  Rotator cuff: subscapularis subscapular fossa lesser tubercle of humerus subscapular artery upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6) rotates medially humerus; stabilizes shoulder infraspinatus and teres minor
               
Arm: Anterior compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  coracobrachialis coracoid process of scapula medial humerus brachial artery musculocutaneous nerve flexes & adducts humerus  
  biceps brachii short head: coracoid process of the scapula. long head: supraglenoid tubercle radial tuberosity brachial artery Musculocutaneous nerve (Lateral cord: C5, C6, C7) flexes elbow and supinates forearm Triceps brachii muscle
  brachialis anterior surface of the humerus, particularly the distal half of this bone coronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulna radial recurrent artery musculocutaneous nerve flexion at elbow joint  
               
Arm: Posterior compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  triceps brachii long head: scapula
lateral head: posterior humerus
medial head: posterior humerus
olecranon process of ulna Profunda brachii radial nerve extends forearm, caput longum adducts shoulder Biceps brachii muscle
  anconeus Lateral epicondyle of the humerus lateral surface of the olecranon process and the superior part of the posterior ulna Profunda brachii, recurrent interosseous artery radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1) partly blended in with the triceps, which it assists in extension of the forearm. Stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation.  
               
Forearm: Anterior compartment, superficial Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  pronator teres humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon).
ulnar head: coronoid process of the ulna
radius ulnar artery and radial artery median nerve pronation of forearm, flexes elbow Supinator muscle
  flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) Bases of second and third metacarpal bones ulnar artery Median nerve Flexion and abduction at wrist Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle
  palmaris longus medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) palmar aponeurosis ulnar artery median nerve wrist flexor Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, Extensor carpi ulnaris
  flexor carpi ulnaris medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon) pisiform ulnar artery muscular branches of ulnar nerve flexion and adduction of wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle
  flexor digitorum superficialis medial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon), as well as parts of the radius and ulna. phalanges ulnar artery median nerve flexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints) Extensor digitorum muscle
               
Forearm: Anterior compartment, deep Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  pronator quadratus medial, anterior surface of the ulna lateral, anterior surface of the radius anterior interosseous artery median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve) pronates the forearm Supinator muscle
  flexor digitorum profundus ulna distal phalanges anterior interosseous artery median (anterior interosseous), muscular branches of ulnar flex hand, interphalangeal joints Extensor digitorum muscle
  flexor pollicis longus The middle 2/4 of the volar surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the humerus.) The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb Anterior interosseous artery Anterior interosseous nerve (branch of median nerve) (C8, T1) Flexion of the thumb Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
               
Forearm: Posterior compartment, superficial Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  brachioradialis Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus Distal radius (Radial styloid process) radial recurrent artery radial nerve Flexion of forearm  
  extensor carpi radialis longus lateral supracondylar ridge 2nd metacarpal radial artery radial nerve extensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist Flexor carpi radialis muscle
  extensor carpi radialis brevis humerus at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) base of the 3rd metacarpal radial artery deep branch of the radial nerve extensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint Flexor carpi radialis muscle
  extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon) 2nd through 5th phalanges interosseous recurrent artery and posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of hand and fingers Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle
  extensor digiti minimi the anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon) extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of the finger on the dorsal side posterior interosseous artery which originates from the common interosseous artery and more proximally, the ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends the little finger at all joints Flexor digiti minimi brevis
  extensor carpi ulnaris Common extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), ulna 5th metacarpal ulnar artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends and adducts the wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris
               
Forearm: Posterior compartment, deep Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  supinator Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligament Lateral proximal radial shaft radial recurrent artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) supinates forearm Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus
  abductor pollicis longus ulna, radial styloid process first metacarpal posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) abduction, extension of thumb Adductor pollicis muscle
  extensor pollicis brevis radius thumb, proximal phalanx posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
  extensor pollicis longus ulna thumb, distal phalanx   posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal) Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle
  extensor indicis ulna index finger (extensor hood)   posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends index finger, wrist  
               
Hand: Lateral volar, thenar Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  opponens pollicis trapezium and transverse carpal ligament metacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial side   median nerve Opposition of the thumb  
  flexor pollicis brevis trapezoid, flexor retinaculum thumb, proximal phalanx   median nerve, deep branch of ulnar nerve (medial head) Flexion of thumb Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
  abductor pollicis brevis Transverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid and trapezium Radial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and the thumb extensors   Median nerve Abduction of thumb Adductor pollicis muscle
  adductor pollicis Transverse head: anterior body of the third metacarpal.
Oblique head: bases of the second and the third metacarpals and the adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones
medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the ulnar sesamoid   deep branch of ulnar nerve (T1) adducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Abductor pollicis brevis muscle
               
Hand: Medial volar, hypothenar Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  palmaris brevis flexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosis palm   superficial branch of ulnar nerve wrinkle skin of palm  
  abductor digiti minimi pisiform base of the proximal phalanx of the 5th digit on the ulnar or medial side ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve Abduction of little finger  
  flexor digiti minimi brevis hamate bone little finger ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve flexes little finger Extensor digiti minimi muscle
  opponens digiti minimi Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Medial border of 5th metacarpal ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) Draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb  
               
Hand: Intermediate Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  lumbrical flexor digitorum profundus extensor expansion superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital artery deep branch of ulnar nerve, median nerve flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints  
  dorsal interossei metacarpals proximal phalanges Dorsal metacarpal artery and palmar metacarpal artery deep branch of ulnar nerve abduct finger Palmar interossei muscles
  palmar interossei metacarpals proximal phalange   deep branch of ulnar nerve adduction  
               
Muscles of lower limbs              
Iliac region Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  Iliopsoas iliac fossa (iliacus, sacrum (iliacus), spine (T12, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) & intervertebral discs (psoas major, psoas minor) femur - lesser trochanter (psoas major/minor), shaft below lesser trochanter (iliacus), tendon of psoas major & femur (iliacus) medial femoral circumflex artery, iliolumbar artery femoral nerve, Lumbar nerves L1, L2 flexion of hip (psoas major/minor, iliacus), spine rotation (psoas major/minor) Gluteus maximus, posterior compartment of thigh
  Iliopsoas: psoas major lower spine in the lesser trochanter of the femur Iliolumbar artery Lumbar plexus via anterior branches of L1, L2, L3 flexes and rotates laterally thigh Gluteus maximus
  Iliopsoas: psoas minor Side of T12+L1 and IV Disc between Pectineal line and iliopectineal eminence   L1 Weak trunk flexor Gluteus maximus
  Iliopsoas: iliacus iliac fossa lesser trochanter of femur medial femoral circumflex artery, Iliolumbar artery femoral nerve (L2, L3) flexes and rotates laterally thigh Gluteus maximus
               
Buttocks Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  gluteus maximus muscle Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament Gluteal tuberosity of the femur, iliotibial tract superior and inferior gluteal arteries inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2 nerve roots) external rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting Iliacus, Psoas major, Psoas minor
  gluteus medius muscle Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximus Greater trochanter of the femur superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. lateral rotator group
  minimus Gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus medius. Greater trochanter of the femur superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) Works in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh. lateral rotator group
  tensor fasciae latae iliac crest iliotibial tract primarily lateral circumflex femoral artery, Superior gluteal artery Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5) Thigh - flexion, medial rotation. Trunk stabilization.  
  lateral rotator group: at or below the acetabulum of the ilium on or near the greater trochanter of the femur Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery Obturator nerve, nerve to the Piriformis, nerve to quadratus femoris lateral rotation of hip Gluteus minimus muscle, Gluteus medius muscle
  piriformis sacrum greater trochanter Inferior gluteal artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery nerve to the Piriformis (S1 and S2 nerve roots) rotate laterally (outward) the thigh  
  obturator externus obturator foramen and obturatory membrane medial aspect of greater trochanter of femur obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (L3, L4) adduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh  
  obturator internus Ischiopubic ramus & obturator membrane medial aspect of the Greater trochanter   Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2) Abducts & rotates laterally thigh, and stabiliser of the hip during walking  
  inferior gemellus Ischial tuberosity Obturator internus tendon   Nerve to Quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1) Rotates laterally thigh  
  superior gemellus spine of the ischium Obturator internus tendon   Sacral plexus (S1, S2, S3) Rotates laterally thigh  
  quadratus femoris Ischial tuberosity Intertrochanteric crest Inferior gluteal artery Nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, -S1) lateral rotation of thigh  
               
Thigh: anterior compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  sartorius superior to the anterior superior iliac spine medial side of the upper tibia in the pes anserinus femoral artery femoral nerve flexion, lateral rotation and abduction of thigh; flexion and medial rotation of leg  
  quadriceps femoris combined rectus femoris and vastus muscles Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery Femoral nerve Knee extension; Hip flexion (R.Fem. only) Hamstring
  quadriceps femoris: rectus femoris anterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the iliac portion of the acetabulum Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve knee extension; hip flexion Hamstring
  quadriceps femoris: vastus lateralis Greater trochanter, Intertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the Femur Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve Extends and stabilizes knee Hamstring
  quadriceps femoris: vastus intermedius antero/ lateral femur Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee Hamstring
  quadriceps femoris: vastus medialis femur Patella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligament femoral artery femoral nerve extends knee Hamstring
  articularis genu femur suprapatellar bursa femoral artery femoral nerve Pulling the suprapatellar bursa during extension of the knee.  
               
Thigh: posterior compartment/hamstring Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  biceps femoris tuberosity of the ischium, linea aspera, femur the head of the fibula which articulates with the back of the lateral tibial condyle inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries, popliteal artery long head: tibial nerve, short head: common peroneal nerve flexes knee joint, laterally rotates knee joint (when knee is flexed), extends hip joint (long head only) Quadriceps muscle
  semitendinosus tuberosity of the ischium pes anserinus inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries sciatic (tibial, L5, S1, S2) flex knee, extend hip joint Quadriceps muscle
  semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Medial surface of tibia profunda femoris, gluteal artery sciatic nerve Hip extension, Knee flexion Quadriceps muscle
               
Thigh: medial compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  gracilis ischiopubic ramus tibia (pes anserinus) medial femoral circumflex artery anterior branch of obturator nerve flexes hip, knee  
  pectineus pubis - superior pubic ramus Lesser trochanter, linea aspera Obturator artery Femoral nerve, sometimes obturator nerve Thigh - flexion, adduction, medial rotation  
  adductor brevis anterior surface of the inferior ramus and body of the pubis the lesser trochanter and linea aspera of the femur Obturator artery obturator nerve adduction of hip  
  adductor longus pubic body just below the pubic crest middle third of linea aspera obturator artery anterior branch of obturator nerve adduction of thigh  
  adductor magnus pubis, tuberosity of the ischium femur Obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (adductor) and sciatic nerve (hamstring) adduction of hip  
               
Leg: anterior compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  tibialis anterior body of tibia medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot anterior tibial artery Deep Fibular (peroneal) nerve dorsiflex and invert the foot Fibularis longus, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris, Tibialis posterior
  extensor hallucis longus middle portion of the fibula on the anterior surface and the interosseous membrane dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the Hallux anterior tibial artery peroneal nerve Extends the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle. Also is a weak invertor Flexor hallucis longus, Flexor hallucis brevis
  extensor digitorum longus Lateral Condyle of tibia and superior ¾ of interosseous membrane Middle and Distal phalanges of lateral four digits anterior tibial artery peroneal nerve extension of toes and ankle Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor digitorum brevis
  fibularis tertius distal anterior surface of the fibula dorsal surface of metatarsal 5 anterior tibial artery deep fibular nerve dorsi flexes and everts foot  
               
Leg: posterior compartment, superficial Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  triceps surae   achilles tendon, calcaneus posterior tibial artery tibial nerve plantarflexion  
  gastrocnemius femur calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve from the sciatic, specifically, nerve roots S1, S2 plantarflexion, flexion of knee (minor) Tibialis anterior muscle
  soleus fibula, medial border of tibia (soleal line) tendo calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2 plantarflexion Tibialis anterior muscle
  plantaris Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur above lateral head of gastrocnemius Tendo calcaneus (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon) sural arteries tibial nerve Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee Tibialis anterior muscle
               
Leg: posterior compartment, deep Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  popliteus middle facet of the lateral surface of the lateral femoral condyle posterior tibia under the tibial condyles popliteal artery tibial nerve Medial rotation and flexion of knee  
  flexor hallucis longus fibula, posterior aspect of upper 1/3 base of distal phalanx of hallux Peroneal artery (peroneal branch of the posterior tibial artery tibial nerve, S1, S2 nerve roots flexes all joints of the Hallux, plantar flexion of the ankle joint Extensor hallucis longus muscle
  flexor digitorum longus medial tibia distal phalanges of lateral four digits posterior tibial artery Tibial nerve Primary action is Flex digits Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor digitorum brevis
  tibialis posterior tibia, fibula navicular, medial cuneiform posterior tibial artery tibial nerve inversion of the foot, plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle Tibialis anterior muscle
               
Leg: lateral compartment Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  Fibularis longus fibula first metatarsal, medial cuneiform fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion Tibialis anterior muscle
  Fibularis brevis fibula fifth metatarsal fibular (peroneal) artery superficial fibular (peroneal) nerve plantarflexion, eversion  
               
Foot: dorsal Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  extensor digitorum brevis calcaneus toes   deep peroneal nerve extends digits 2, 3, and 4 Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor digitorum brevis
  extensor hallucis brevis calcaneus base of proximal phalanx of hallux   deep peroneal nerve Extension of hallux Flexor hallucis brevis muscle
               
Foot: plantar, 1st layer Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  abductor hallucis medial process of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit   plantar nerve  abducts hallux Adductor hallucis muscle
  flexor digitorum brevis medial process of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa middle phalanges of digits 2-5   plantar nerve  flexes lateral four toes Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor digitorum brevis
  abductor digiti minimi Plantar aponeurosis Fifth toe or Phalanges lateral plantar artery lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) flex and abduct the fifth toe Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
               
Foot: plantar, 2nd layer Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  quadratus plantae Calcaneus Tendons of Flexor Digitorum Longus   lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) Assists Flexor Digitorum Longus in flexion of DIP joints  
  lumbrical muscle tendons of flexor digitorum longus medial aspect of extensor expansion over lateral four digits   plantar nerve  flex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits  
               
Foot: plantar, 3rd layer Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  flexor hallucis brevis       medial plantar nerve flex hallux Extensor hallucis longus muscle
  adductor hallucis       plantar nerve  adducts hallux Abductor hallucis muscle
  flexor digiti minimi brevis fifth metatarsal bone phalanx of the fifth toe   plantar nerve  flex and adduct the fifth toe Abductor digiti minimi muscle
               
Foot: plantar, 4th layer Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
  dorsal interossei       plantar nerve  abduct toes Plantar interossei muscles
  plantar interossei metatarsals proximal phalanges   plantar nerve  adduct toes Dorsal interossei of the foot
   
   
 
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